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2010 Conference Research Poster Session

ABSTRACTS

Fetal Neurological Processing of Musical Elements: Implications for Music Therapy Theory and Practice in the NICU

Deanna Abromeit and Whitney Ostercamp (University of Missouri-Kansas City)
Neurobehavioral functioning is on a continuum with gestational age (Mouradian, Als, & Coster, 2000). Inappropriate stimuli that are too complex and intense can have a negative impact on neurobehavioral development (Als, 1986). When providing interventions for premature infants in the NICU it is important to understand the relationship between neurological functioning, behavioral outcomes and the intervention stimulus. For music therapists, the intervention stimulus is the music, thus an understanding of the neurological development in relation to the musical elements is critical to providing evidence-based interventions and predictable and efficacious outcomes. Current research suggests that specific elements of music are processed in various parts of the brain (Levitin, 2006; Patel, 2010). Therefore, this paper will discuss the brain structures that process melody, pitch, rhythm, tempo, dynamics, timbre, and lyrics and when these brain structures develop during fetal development.

Music-Based Intervention Reporting in the NICU

Deanna Abromeit, Mirna Kawar, & Helen Shoemark (University of Missouri-Kansas City)
Published research suggests that adding music to the NICU environment can be beneficial for the care and development of premature infants. The efficacy of music in the NICU has been strongly debated over the years, particularly related to determining if outcomes were due to the effects of the stimulus or simply the masking the ambient noise (Philbin & Klaas, 2000). Significant problems with transparent reporting of music interventions, particularly in the categories of music qualities, intervention materials, and treatment fidelity inhibit the development of the music therapy profession and open doors for criticism and devaluation of the efficacy of music therapy in the pediatric population (Robb & Carpenter, 2009). Additionally, incomplete descriptions of music-based interventions propose significant barriers to the advancement of evidence-based practice (Robb & Carpenter, 2009; Robb, Burns & Carpenter, 2010). Guidelines for reporting music-based interventions have been suggested in the literature use of which ensure adequate reporting of studies, eliminate potential criticism, and increase understanding of intervention attributes that contribute to efficacious outcomes (Robb & Carpenter, 2009; Robb, Burns & Carpenter, 2010).
This study reviewed the quality of intervention reporting in music therapy research utilizing recorded music in the NICU. The purpose of this study was 1) to provide awareness of the quality of published research in connection to intervention reporting in the NICU; 2) to identify problematic areas that are incompletely reported; and 3) to provide recommendations and guidelines to be considered in future research.

The Effect of Music Therapy on Response Time and Number of Prompts Needed to Follow Directions in Four Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders
Ann Armbruster (Western Michigan University)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of music therapy on response time and number of prompts needed to follow directions in four 6- and 7-year-olds with autism. It was a two-level repeated measures experiment with a reversal of conditions. The music condition consisted of the researcher singing the direction with guitar accompaniment. The non-music condition consisted of the researcher using natural speech to give the direction. Overall results did not show a significant difference between the conditions and the subjects’ response time and prompts received. Further analysis of the mean scores revealed that the higher functioning children with autism responded better to directions given in a musical context. Implications for further research are provided.

A Music Analysis Method for GIM Music Programs: The Use of Classic and Hi-Tech Techniques

Mi Hyun Bae (Michigan State University). A Guided Imagery and Music (GIM) practitioner listens to music with the ear of a client and with the ear of a therapist. This dual music listening, which is personal and subjective as well as analytical and critical, should be pursued attentively and continuously in order to be better prepared for one’s GIM practice as a human person and as a therapist. In this vein, I propose an integrative and practical way of music listening for a clinical or research purpose that employs a hand-written report and computer-based analysis. As a theoretical support for this music analysis method, I reviewed literature regarding music in GIM and music analysis of GIM music programs, while putting existing approaches into three categories – an analyzer’s listening experience, musical/musicological scrutiny and a client’s listening experience.

Test Instruments Measuring Musical Responses Used in the Journal of Music Therapy, 1998-2009

Mi Hyun Bae (Michigan State University) A client’s musical response in music therapy is the most important data. Based on these data, a music therapist sets an initial goal, checks the client’s response to ongoing therapeutic treatment, and eventually evaluates the treatment effect on the client. However, as Gregory’s research revealed (2000), in which she analyzed test instruments used by Journal of Music Therapy authors from 1984 to 1997, there has been a paucity of test instruments to measure musical responses. In this vein, the results of her study and my personal research interests in clinical analysis of music triggered me to investigate musical tests used in the Journal of Music Therapy in a more recent period. The purpose of my paper is to review and discuss the musical test instruments used in the JMT articles spanning from 1998 to 2009. The criterion for inclusion was that the research article included a test instrument to measure musical response. The test instruments based on behavioral observations and using computerized devices as well as self-report questionnaires were included; however, physiological measures and behavioral observations without test instruments were excluded.

Effect of Group Music Therapy on Teachers' Anxiety, Perceived Efficacy, and Job Engagement

Min-Jeong Bae (The University of Kansas) The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of group music therapy to reduce teachers’ anxiety and enhance perceived efficacy and job engagement. This study examined two conditions, music and imagery and cognitive restructuring with improvisation. The music and imagery (MI) condition included music and imagery in addition to meditation and breathing. The cognitive restructuring with improvisation (CRI) condition included the same meditation and breathing as the MI condition, yet added cognitive restructuring with vocal and instrumental improvisation, in lieu of music and imagery. Eight teachers from a preschool in Virginia were randomly assigned to one of the two groups of four participants in each group. Both groups met for 60 minutes once a week for six consecutive weeks. The investigator compared participants’ pre- to posttest state and trait anxiety (STAI), perceived teacher efficacy (TSES), and job engagement (UWES) across both conditions. Results indicated that the MI condition compared from pre- to posttest showed a decrease in state and trait anxiety, and an increase in teacher sense of efficacy (TSES) scores. Results for the CRI group showed an increase in job engagement (UWES) and teacher sense of efficacy (TSES) scores. Comparison of the mean scores between the two groups revealed greater differences for the MI condition compared to the CRI condition on three out of the four measures: state anxiety, trait anxiety, and perceived teacher sense of efficacy (TSES).
 

Song Lyrics Created By and With Clients in Music Therapy: A Content Analysis of Articles Published in U.S. Music Therapy Journals 1964-2009

Felicity Baker, (The University of Queensland) Robert E .Krout, (Southern Methodist University) & Katrina McFerran, (University of Melbourne)
The varied uses of songwriting for and in clinical music therapy practice have recently been examined in detail, both in the United States and world-wide. One recent two-part study described the most frequently targeted client goal areas in songwriting across a wide range of client populations, and compared these to the published music therapy literature. Responses to a 21-question online survey were obtained from 477 music therapists practicing in 29 countries. In the second article, the authors focused on approaches to songwriting that music therapists take within their practice with a single population. The purpose of the present project was to analyze articles published in U.S. music therapy journals which included song lyrics written by or with clients over a 45-year publication period between 1964 and 2009. This analysis was done in part to examine how the lyrics in the U.S. songs reflect the 16 client goal areas as reported above by music therapists world-wide. It was hoped that comparing articles which include client lyrics from the U.S. music therapy journals with the goal areas reported world-wide would help place U.S. music therapy clinical songwriting practices into perspective compared to those the international music therapy community. The reviewed American journals included Journal of Music Therapy, Music Therapy, and Music Therapy Perspectives.

The Effect of a Music Therapy Intergenerational Program on Children and Older Adults' Intergenerational Interactions, Cross-Age Attitudes, and Older Adults' Psychosocial Well-Being

Melita Belgrave (UMKC Conservatory of Music and Dance)
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of participation in a music-based intergenerational music program on cross-age interactions and cross-age attitudes of elementary-age children and older adults, and older adults’ psychosocial well-being. Twenty-one children in the 4th grade volunteered to participate in the experimental (n = 12) or control (n = 9) group. Twenty-six older adults from a retirement living facility also volunteered to participate in the experimental (n = 14) or control (n = 12) group. Ten 30-minute music sessions occurred in which participants engaged in singing, structured conversation, moving to music, and instrument playing interventions. Data analysis of cross-age interactions revealed that the interventions “structured conversation” and “moving to music” were more effective in eliciting interaction behaviors than the interventions “singing” and “instrument playing.” Standardized measures revealed that children’s attitudes towards older adults improved, though not significantly so, after participation in the intergenerational program. Results of biweekly post-session questionnaires revealed a decrease in negative descriptions of older adults and an increase in positive descriptions of older adults—suggesting a more positive view towards aging. Results revealed that older adults’ attitudes towards children improved significantly after their participation in the intergenerational program. While standardized measures revealed that older adults did not perceive a significant improvement in their psychosocial well-being, their bi-weekly post-session questionnaires showed they perceived increased feelings of usefulness and other personal benefits from the intergenerational interactions. Suggestions for future research, the utility of varied measurement instruments, and implications for practice are discussed.

An Exploration of Music Therapy as a Strength-Based Treatment in Adolescents with Chronic Medical Conditions and Depressive Symptoms

Molly Boes & Paul Nolan (Drexel University)
This study explores music therapy with adolescents who have a chronic medical condition and also show depressive or dysphoric symptoms. There are many options, both pharmacological and psychotherapeutic, for treating these symptoms, but there is little research in the field of music therapy for addressing the specific needs of these adolescents. Using database searches, literature was complied and reviewed on topics including adolescent development, the effects of chronic medical conditions on adolescents, and current treatment options for this population, including psychopharmacology and various theories of psychotherapy including the creative arts therapies. Music therapy was defined and applicable literature was addressed.
 

Music and Children with Disabilities: A Research Update (1999-2009)

Laura Brown, Kimiko Glynn & Judith A. Jellison (The University of Texas at Austin)
A systematic review of published research provides an overall perspective that can be useful to
organizations and individuals as they make decisions concerning future priorities for research and
practice. A review of music research with children with disabilities takes on particular importance
because of the dramatic and continuing changes taking place as a result of the Individuals with
Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). In a review of published music research (1975-1999) pertinent to children and youth with disabilities, Jellison (2000) established criteria for the inclusion of studies as well as categories and criteria for analyses. Results of the review show effectiveness of music therapy to reach non-music outcomes although music outcomes were identified far less often as variables for study.

Effects of Live Singing on Premature Infants' Physiological Parameters

Josh Bula (The Florida State University) & Andrea Cevasco (University of Alabama)
Researchers indicated the effectiveness of music listening for premature infants; however, only one study examined the effects of live singing. Since October 2009, music therapy has been implemented for premature infants, birth gestational age between 26 to 36 weeks, in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in the southeast area of the United States. Music therapy services involved live singing with guitar accompaniment for approximately 15-20 minutes; services were provided to medically unstable infants, (i.e., receiving mechanical ventilation) on the high-risk side as well as those on the intermediate care side who were 30 weeks and older. Preliminary data was collected on 34 infant’s oxygen saturation levels, heart rate, and respiratory rate prior to and following music therapy. Results indicated a significant difference for infants’ heart rate before and after music therapy, p < .01. While there were no significant difference for oxygen saturation and respiratory rate, p > .05, some infants experienced positive effects for these physiological measurements. Clinical implications are discussed.

Music Therapists' Perception of Top Ten Popular Songs by Decade (1900s-1960s)

Andrea Cevasco (The University of Alabama) & Kimberly Van Weelden (The Florida State University)
Since the older adult population encompasses a wide age range and various physical and cognitive functioning levels, it is important to examine differences in song selection according to older adult sub-populations; music therapists might utilize different repertoire according to their clients’ physiological and psychological abilities. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to survey music therapists, asking them to identify the top 10 popular songs from each decade, 1900s through the 1960s, based on the comprehensive list of songs from the Cevasco and VanWeelden (2010) study. Specifically, the study sought to examine the top 10 songs according to three sub-populations of older adult clients (Alzheimer’s/Dementia, Geriatric Clients, and Well Elderly). Also of interest was the number of music therapists’ who know a song versus those who used a song with older adults.
 

Music Brightens Seniors' Life: A Study of Social and Psychological Benefits of a Creative Band for Older Adults

Hsin-Yi Cheng (The University of Iowa)
This study focuses on “Creative Band for the Young-Hearted Senior,” which is the “oldest” band in Tainan, Taiwan and also is a course in a community center. The band is made up of 42 elders with an average age of 74. Some of the members suffer from stroke, hearing impairments, or are wheelchair bound. This band has often been invited to perform in public occasions, has appeared on television, and has been featured in newspaper articles several times. The researcher was the teacher for this band. The elders practiced once a week, for 90 minutes over two years. During practice, the researcher taught members to understand musical elements through music activities and to make their own instruments, such as clappers and maracas made of natural or recycled materials. In addition, stick notation and pictures were used to train rhythmic skills. The performance of this band combined music with movements and art. The repertoire included familiar music from classical as well as Taiwanese, Chinese and English popular music styles. The instrumentation used included percussion instruments, keyboards and hand-made instruments. In this study, the researcher demonstrated the effects of participating in this band on members’ social interaction, psychological and physical well-being through field observation and semi- structured interviews. This study shows that participating in the band was a medium for promoting interaction with peers and family as well as a catalyst which improved physical functioning and increased sense of self-achievement. Music motivates seniors to stay involved with other people in the community. Because of engaging in such a music group activity, they have opportunities to perform and show their vitality on public occasions, and have contact with people outside the community. Anecdotally, the band members appeared to be more considerate and cooperative with one another as a result of on-going participation in the band. This research encourages community centers and institutes to offer more group music lessons to increase physical and psychological well-being and to decrease isolation. Future research should include physical measures that document more clearly possible benefits to physiological functioning.

Music as a Projective Instrument in the Assessment of Personality: Sexual Offenders and “Non-Disordered”

Peggy Codding & Earl Stump (Berklee College of Music)
When music can be categorized with some degree of reliability according to preference by particular “personality groups,” then music might be used as an informal projective tool in clinical assessment. The purpose of this study was to develop and begin validation of an instrument using music as projective “media” in the informal assessment of personality. It is hypothesized that, in the case of “disordered populations” such as Sexual Offenders, specific lyric themes expressed in contemporary music represent associations beyond the music. Objective: Given that music is able to tap specific emotional themes and that high inter-rater agreement as to the nature of these themes is possible, the purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between music preference and personality themes.

Carol Hampton Bitcon: A Pioneer in Orff-Based Music Therapy

Cynthia M. Colwell (University of Kansas)
The researcher’s intent for this project was to delve deeper into the life of Carol Hampton Bitcon and examine her roles in both AMTA and AOSA and how she bridged those two “worlds”. Specifically, the researcher attempted to answer the following questions:
What is the personal chronology of Carol Hampton Bitcon’s life? What is the professional chronology of her life as a music therapist? How did she become interested in the Orff approach? Who were the individuals influential in this interest? How specifically did she integrate that into her clinical practice? Was she Orff certified? What level of training did she obtain? What was her role in AMTA? What was her role in AOSA? What role did she have in the development of the MT program at Seattle Pacific? What was her philosophy of Orff-based music therapy, as indicated in her books, conference presentations, and other writings?

The Effect of Music Technology on College Students' Retention during Repeated Memorization Tasks

Allison Cross & Barbara Wheeler (University of Louisville)
This research examined the effect of using music technology on students’ retention while performing repeated memorization tasks. Participants were 11 college non-music major students who were taking communications or social work courses at a large metropolitan university. They were randomly assigned into one of two conditions: interacting with a source of technology before performing memorization tasks (group A) or interacting with each other before performing memorization tasks (group B). An analysis of variance for repeated measures found no significant differences (p < .05) in the time that it took to complete the on-line memory task for any of the three observation times nor any interactions between the performance of subjects in any of the conditions on any of the three observation times. Implications on the use of music technology in education are discussed.

An Examination of Therapeutic Approaches Employed by Music Therapists Servicing Children and Teens with Behavior Disorders

Jessie Crump (The Florida State University)
The purpose of this study was to examine the therapeutic approaches employed by music therapists servicing children and teens with behavior disorders. The therapeutic approaches were examined in relation to: (a) the frequency of approaches (behavioral, analytical, Nordoff-Robbins, etc.) employed by music therapists, (b) the degree to which interventions employed by music therapists followed the research literature on evidence-based practice with children and teens who have behavior disorders, (c) the degree to which therapists’ approaches were influenced by their academic training (approach stressed by their university program) and by their professional identity (behaviorist, Nordoff-Robbins practitioner, etc.), and (d) the degree to which therapists’ approaches influenced the goals they addressed, and (e) the degree to which therapists’ approaches influenced the interventions they used with children and teens who have behavior disorders. Board-certified music therapists from the 2009 American Music Therapy Association Sourcebook who worked with children and teens with behavior disorders served as participants (N=114). Participants completed a 28-item questionnaire that addressed the five research questions and included items related to participants’ demographic information, their education, therapeutic approaches, music therapy experiences, behavior disorder caseloads, music interventions, and non-music techniques. Results indicated that (1) the most frequently utilized approach was behavioral, followed closely by eclectic, (2) 79.40% of music therapists continued to follow the approach stressed by their university programs, (3) participants’ professional approaches did not influence the social goals the music therapists addressed, though approaches may have influenced the other goals they addressed with children and teens who have behavior disorders, (4) participants in the present study employed therapeutic interventions that followed the research literature on effective practices with children and teens who have behavior disorders, and they also employed interventions that have yet to be studied by researchers, and (5) participants’ therapeutic approaches influenced the interventions they employed with children and teens who have behavior disorders. These findings highlight the relationship between participants’ education, their professional identity, and their approaches to servicing children and teens with behavior disorders. Additionally, results from this study identify interventions used by music therapists that follow the research literature on effective practices with children and teens who have behavior disorders; also identified are interventions that have yet to be examined by researchers.

Accessible Music Instruction via PianoWizard T: Four Case Studies of Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities

Alice-Ann Darrow & Yen-Hsuan Yang (The Florida State University)
The purpose of the four case studies was to determine the effectiveness of a technology-based piano curriculum for individuals with intellectual disabilities. The piano curriculum, Piano Wizard™, was designed to teach music reading and piano skills using technology similar to the popular music software and hardware Guitar Hero or Donkey Konga. The simple goal of the video game is to press the correct note at the correct time. Every song is followed by applause, and the player gets a percentage score of correct notes. The music is adaptable depending on the player’s cognitive and physical abilities. Using a MIDI keyboard, the player can choose to play the left hand or right hand part, or use both hands. Initially, a player only needs to use one or two fingers in each song, but as the player progresses, more fingers can be used and the songs can scroll faster, resulting in a faster tempo. Both the music and the keyboard are initially color-coded. The player proceeds through 4 levels. In level one, a colored object scrolls up the screen and the player attempts to press the correct piano key when the object passes a specified target on the screen. The second level is the same as level one; however, the keyboard appears on the left side of the screen instead of the bottom. The purpose of this orientation is to help the player learn the function of the staff and how notes typically appear on a staff. The third level uses regular music notation with colored notes. The fourth level uses the normal music staff, typical black and white notation, and a MIDI or regular keyboard.

Using Music to Facilitate In-School Transitions for Students with Autism

Ellen DeHavilland, Bryan Hunter, Leslie Hunter, Robyn Incardona, Margaret McKeown, Emily Plassman, Tricia Polchowski, Nickole Riedl Sleight & Edy Zordan (Nazareth College)
The purpose of this study was to determine if students with autism transition better between locations in school with a music therapy intervention than students who do not receive any intervention. Transitions are often challenging for students with autism resulting in the manifestation of a variety of inappropriate behaviors such as screaming, kicking, hiding and hitting. Kern, Wolery and Aldridge (2007) found that the use of individually composed songs assisted children with autism to participate in the morning routine at their inclusive classroom.

Music Therapy for Young Adolescents Who Have Experienced the Death of a Loved One

Deborah Dempsey & Dr. Cathy McKinney (Hayes School of Music)
Those who experience the death of a loved one in early adolescence need supports to assist them with the changes they experience. Adolescents who experience a death may struggle to find support and healthy mechanisms to cope with the loss in addition to the developmental tasks of adolescence (Gordon, 1986). Grief responses of adolescents are complex; therefore, services need to be available to help assist them and meet their needs (Stokes, Reid, & Cook, 2009).
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a music therapy based support group on depressive and grief symptoms in young adolescents who have experienced the death of a loved one. Participants were 3 middle school students, ages 11-12. Measures utilized to determine the effects of music therapy on grief symptoms were the Texas Revised Inventory of Grief (TRIG; Faschingbauer, et al. 1987) scores on which range from 13 (low grief) to 65 (high grief) and the Depression Self-Rating Scale (DSRS; Birleson, 1981), on which scores range from 0 (low depression) to 36 (high depression).

Music Therapy Support Groups for Cancer Patients and Caregivers

Abbey Dvorak (University of Iowa)
The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of a six-session music therapy support group on mood, coping, social support, and quality of life of individuals diagnosed with cancer and their caregivers (family or friends). Participants were recruited from a cancer center at a large Midwestern hospital, a local Hope Lodge, and the surrounding communities. Groups were held at a local American Cancer Center Hope Lodge in a large conference room.

The Professional Musician as Pedagogue: Private Lessons for Students with Special Needs

Alejandra Ferrer, Patricia Flowers & Christina Pelletier (Ohio State University)
The purpose of the study was to gain in-depth information about whether selected professional musicians taught special needs students in their teaching studios and, if so, what were their perceptions, experiences, and successes in working with those individuals. We used a snowball sampling technique to recruit interviewees representing a variety of musical instruments and levels of professional experience. None of the musicians had degrees in music education or music therapy. We engaged them in a 15-question structured interview process that lasted between 15-45 minutes. Interviewees were encouraged to provide specific examples about their studio expectations, students they thought had a disability, instructional processes, adaptations of materials or instruments, concerns and successes. We were particularly interested in whether they thought additional information about working with students with disabilities would benefit them and their studio instruction. Preliminary results showed that many of the musician/pedagogues taught students with disabilities although not all could identify or label the specific disability. Students were often thought to have some characteristics of ADD or autism. Following a content analysis of the structured interviews, we will discuss how the individual teachers described what did and didn’t work, how they approached teaching/learning for their students, and whether they had an interest in additional professional development in music pedagogy.

Multicultural Feminist Music Therapy Applied to BMGIM with a Woman with Complex-PTSD

Seung-hee Eum (Michigan State University)
The purpose of the research presentation is to inform multicultural-feminist music therapy by focusing on a case study conducted with BMGIM between an American female client with Complex-PTSD and a Korean female therapist. During BMGIM sessions: 1) the therapist focused on mutually empowering, egalitarian relationships, which are feminist therapy approaches; and 2) the therapist was also aware of multicultural therapy approaches, using a culturally sensitive assessment tool, named the ADDRESSING framework. These two approaches—feminist and multicultural—help this case study inform a multicultural-feminist music therapy.

Multicultural Music Therapy Curriculum: A Reconceptualized View Constituted by Postmodernism

Seung-hee Eum (Michigan State University)
The purpose of this research presentation is to discuss a new way of thinking a re-conceptualized view constituted by postmodernism—about music therapy curriculum, which is a multicultural music therapy undergraduate degree program to help a changing society, especially a society that is becoming multicultural. For this, the research poster presentation provides definitions for multiculturalism that expand the concept of multiculturalism and argues for a multicultural music therapy undergraduate program in a re-conceptualized approach to curriculum.
 

The Effects of Music Therapy in Orthopedic Rehabilitation of Older Adults: A Program Analysis

Erin Fox (Bethel University)
This study examined the effects of music therapy in orthopedic rehabilitation with older adults (N=17). Participants were alternately placed in control and treatment groups. Participants in the control group received physical and occupational therapies as prescribed, whereas the treatment group received five music therapy treatments per week, which were integrated into their treatment programs. Music therapy interventions included Patterned Sensory Enhancement (PSE), Rhythmic Auditory Stimulation (RAS), and Therapeutic Instrumental Musical Performance (TIMP). These techniques address upper and lower body strength, gait, and balance, respectively. In both groups lengths of stay and refusals to attend therapy were recorded and a questionnaire regarding satisfaction with the therapy process was administered upon discharge. Results indicated that music therapy had a significant effect in several areas of mobility status and ADLs, including use of a rolling walker, toilet transfer, upper extremity dressing, lower extremity dressing, and functional transfers. The treatment group had a shorter mean length of stay, and provided more positive responses to the questionnaire, although these results were not significant. Further research is warranted to explore the benefits of music therapy in orthopedic rehabilitation with older adults and cost effectiveness of this type of program.

Popular Music as a Socializing Agent for a Middle School Boy with Asperger’s Syndrome: A Case Study

Mathieu Fredrickson, William Fredrickson & Clifford Madsen (The Florida State University)
Asperger’s syndrome is popularly described as a disorder on the autism spectrum manifested most often by difficulty sustaining typical social interactions, particularly with peers. The subject of this case study was a 13-year-old male with Asperger’s in a main streamed middle school setting. The subject was moderately successful in school academically but had trouble making friends and experienced some instances of bullying by other students. Behavioral observations and subject reports indicated the subject had little success sustaining “small talk” and when not in class was most often seen alone (eating lunch, in the school hallway, after school, etc.). The subject was given an MP3 player and told that they could keep it if they completed some tasks. The subject was to ask 5 boys and 5 girls, of his choosing, to tell him what their favorite song was and why they liked it. Then he was given a gift card and instructed to find the various pieces of music on-line and download them to the MP3 player. His next task was to listen to the music and then write a paragraph about each piece explaining why his peers said they liked those tunes and what things about the music or lyrics he thought caused them like it.  When writing about the songs, and why peers liked them, the subject identified both musical and social aspects of the music and lyrics. Themes included sexuality, emotions, forbidden behaviors (sex, profanity, drugs), and various human interactions including differences between how boys and girls may perceive and react. In addition the subject wrote about musical aspects of the songs that he felt made them attractive to peers and to him. When asked about whether or not he was aware of this music before the project and how he liked the music the subject indicated that this was not the type of music he listened to but that he had enjoyed coming to know some of these songs and would continue to listen to some of them. He also stated that he felt that he was “friends” with some of the peers with whom he had interacted during the project. Behavioral observation confirmed that the subject occasionally talked to some other students during times in between classes and regularly ate at a table with several other students during lunch, although his verbal and physical interactions with these peers still placed him somewhat on the periphery of the group. Based on this case it is recommended that systematic use of popular music to facilitate social interaction between those with Asperger’s syndrome and their neuro-typical peers be further explored.

Employment Trends in the American Music Therapy Association, 1998-2009

Amy Furman & Michael Silverman (University of Minnesota)
The purpose of this study was to analyze employment trends of music therapists who are members of the American Music Therapy Association (AMTA) from its inception in 1998 to 2009. The authors analyzed descriptive statistical profiles of the AMTA membership from the last 12 Member Sourcebooks. Results indicated that since 1998, an overall addition of 500 music therapy jobs have been created. Most new music therapy positions were created in schools, nursing homes, and self-employment/private practice. Concerning work settings, standard deviations were relatively small indicating little change in work settings over time. However, there was a rise in the number of music therapists working with clients with autism. Data indicated that many music therapists continue to work in self-employment and private practice. Overall, AMTA membership seems to be slightly aging and tends to be slightly less experienced. Implications for academic curricula and sustaining the membership of AMTA are provided. Limitations and areas for future research are provided.

Communicative Acts in Music Therapy InterventionS with and without Aided Augmentative and Alternative Communication Systems

Anita Gadberry (University of Kansas)
Competent communication is essential in daily life, yet many people cannot communicate via the standard means of speech, and thus require the use of Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC). Music therapists treat clients that utilize AAC; however, there is a lack of research literature examining communication in music therapy sessions with AAC. The present study was designed to assess the (a) frequency of a client’s intentional communicative acts, (b) nature of a client’s communicative functions, and (c) frequency of the therapist’s prompts for communication within a music therapy intervention with aided AAC and one without aided AAC.

Active Music Engagement with Emotional-Approach Coping to Improve Well-Being in Liver and Kidney Transplant Recipients

Claire Ghetti (University of Kansas)
Liver and kidney transplant recipients report elevated psychological distress following transplant in comparison to other types of organ transplant recipients. Negative affective states can lead to immune dysregulation and adverse health behaviors, and therefore may contribute to disease. In contrast, positive affective states can broaden individuals’ thoughts and actions to promote the accumulation of coping resources. Music therapy is a form of non-pharmacological intervention that may positively impact affective states and improve coping in individuals following transplant surgery. Coping strategies have traditionally been conceived of as being either problem-focused or emotion-focused in nature, while contemporary theory and research supports a different division: approach-oriented strategies versus avoidance-oriented strategies. Emotional expression may function as an active or approach-oriented strategy. Emotional-approach coping relates to the use of emotional expression and emotional awareness to facilitate coping with significant life stressors. The current study evaluated the impact of music therapy with and without a specific emphasis on emotional-approach coping. This study used Active Music Engagement (AME) and Emotional-Approach Coping (EAC) to impact the well-being of post-operative liver and kidney transplant recipients.

Descriptive Analysis of YouTube Music Therapy Videos

Lori Gooding (University of Kentucky) & Dianne Gregory (The Florida State University)
The purpose of this study was to conduct a descriptive analysis of music therapy- related videos on YouTube. Preliminary searches using keywords music therapy, followed by music therapy session, followed by “music therapy session” resulted in listings of 5000 hits (i.e., videos triggered by the search term), 767 hits, and 59 hits, respectively. The sample for the descriptive analysis was the final listing of 59 videos retrieved on June 4, 2010. The videos were divided between two investigators and reviewed in order to determine their relationship (or lack thereof) to music therapy. A total of 32 videos were determined to be depictions of music therapy sessions.

The Effect of a Music-Therapy-Based Social Skills Training Program on Social Competence in Children and Adolescents with Social Skills Deficits

Lori Gooding, (University of Kentucky)
Strong social skills are vital for successful functioning in life. Social skills enable individuals to interact appropriately with others and impact (a) academic success, (b) peer and family relationships, (c) employment and (d) extra-curricular/leisure activities. Research indicates that deficits in social functioning during childhood are linked to a variety of negative outcomes including: (a) substandard academic performance, (b) high incidences of school maladjustment, (c) expulsions and/or suspensions from school, (d) high dropout rates, (e) high delinquency rates, (f) impaired social relationships, (g) high incidences of childhood psychopathology and (h) substance abuse. Research also suggests that the impact of impaired social functioning in childhood can be long lasting and contribute to (a) a lack of postsecondary education and training, (b) unemployment or underemployment, (c) unstable and unfulfilling personal lives and (d) adult mental health issues. At the same time, research also indicates that programs designed to improve social competence can positively impact an individual’s social functioning. The purpose of this dissertation was to examine the effect of a music therapy-based intervention program on improving social skills competence in children and adolescents with social skills deficits.

Live and Recorded Music: Differences in Preference among College Musicians

Armistead Grandstaff & Barbara Wheeler (University of Louisville)
This study investigated differences in preference between live music and recorded music by music majors. Two music examples of Francisco Tárrega’s Lagrima, one live and one recorded, were performed for two intact groups of undergraduate university students and followed by a series of questions presented on a questionnaire. Preference was assessed using a survey of follow up questions from the questionnaire. Out of 15 students participating in the study, 11 preferred the live music presentation, 3 preferred recorded, and 1 indicated no preference. A Chi Square analysis found the results to be significant at the 0.033 level with one degree of freedom.

The Effects of Vibroacoustic Therapy on Range of Motion and Spasticity Levels of Post-Stroke Patients in a Long Term Care Setting

Elizabeth Griffin (University of Kansas)
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of vibroacoustic therapy on range of motion and spasticity levels of post-stroke patients in a long term care setting. Six subjects participated in passive range of motion (PROM) engagement across six sessions. Each subject received all three conditions two times across the sessions, therefore receiving each condition twice. Condition A consisted of vibroacoustic therapy (VA) prior to PROM engagement and silence during PROM engagement, condition B consisted of silence prior to PROM engagement and VA therapy during PROM engagement, and condition C consisted of silence prior to and during PROM engagement. The Ashworth Scale was used in both pre and posttest to measure resting posture levels and a goniometer was used in both pre and posttests to measure range of motion. Analyses of data revealed that VA therapy during PROM engagement was significantly more effective than silence prior to and during PROM engagement for elbow range of motion scores. Results also indicated that both conditions of VA therapy were more effective than silence for shoulder abduction scores. The physical benefits indicated by the data suggest potential outcomes from further studies with a larger sample size.

Point of View: What Fludd, Kepler, and Brahe Can Teach Us When Looking at the Stars and at Music Therapy

Robert Groene (UMKC Conservatory of Music and Dance)
The purpose of this research was to investigate the evolution of professions as detailed by the polarity and diversity of viewpoints. 17th Century science (Cosmology/Astronomy) was compared with 21st Century Music Therapy (an art and a science). Basic Questions: 1) To learn about how ancient philosophers viewed the ties with music theory and the heavens. 2) To learn how careful calculation of basic data over time can inform larger theoretical constructs in a profession. 3) To discuss polarity and diversity of viewpoints within professions, including music therapy.
On the recent 400th anniversary of the telescope, this research was undertaken with a focus on three historic 17th Century figures: Tycho Brahe, Johannes Kepler, and Robert Fludd. They began their careers in medicine, science/mathematics, and music with disparate theories of planetary movement and the effect of music upon them. By the end of their lives, one would change his theory of the universe based on the careful observations of planetary movement by one of the others, and one would remain steadfast in mystical explanation, provoking spirited debate between two of them.

Melody and Memory: Utilizing Familiar Melodies to Facilitate Recall of Unconnected Texts

Aimee Hinote & Barbara L. Wheeler (University of Louisville)
It is a common belief that using a familiar melody can facilitate in memory recall. The effects of presentation mode on word recall were examined. A list of 10 words was chosen using a Random Word Generator. Undergraduate volunteers were randomly assigned and tested for word recall after listening to the list of words presented in one of two conditions: spoken or sung. On a pen and paper test, participants were asked to list as many words as they could recall in one minute. Words were counted correct only if they were verbatim and not substitutions or alterations of the word. The current study found no significant difference between the spoken and the sung conditions. Explanations for these results were considered. More structured and consistent research is needed to prove if this common belief is correct.

Results of a Twelve-Week Combined Individual and Group Music Therapy Intervention versus Traditional Individual and Group Therapy for Partial Hospitalization Youth

David Hussey, Deborah Layman & Anne Reed (Kent State University)
A child mental health research study employed the use of a matched-pairs pre/post design in order to look at the utility and application of four specific music therapy protocols for use with traumatized children who manifest serious emotional and behavioral disturbances. Collectively, the Ohio Scales and BES data strongly suggest that partial hospitalization children who received music therapy showed greater improvements during the twelve week treatment period spanning approximately 90 days, and some of these differences endured until their final Ohio Scales rating approximately 146 days later. These trends in the data, with small matched paired samples, strongly suggest evidence of a music therapy effect. This study represents one of the few rigorous, quasi-experimental matched-pair designs used to help disentangle the confounding effects of multiple-milieu residential and partial hospitalization treatments running parallel to a specific intervention (music therapy) under study.

Six-Session Group Music Therapy vs. Traditional Group Therapy for Children Receiving Partial Hospitalization Treatment

David Hussey, Deborah Layman & Anne Reed (Kent State University)
A children’s mental health treatment agency expanded, integrated, and tested attachment and abuse recovery group music therapy protocols in a large Midwestern child partial hospitalization program. Prior to the six-week music therapy group intervention in the partial hospitalization program, subjects were observed in their traditional partial hospitalization (P.H.) group therapy sessions. In each group therapy rating situation, a music therapist rater randomly selected (by drawing names) three children who would be observed and rated using the Group Therapy Assessment Instrument. This instrument was developed for use with children who have serious emotional disturbances, including those children who require placement in a residential or partial hospitalization treatment program. The instrument measures group functioning across nine domains: attention to task (physical and verbal), eye contact, pro-social skills (physical and verbal), empathy, and managing negative affect (physical and verbal). The physical and verbal behaviors specifically identified in each domain are measured along a continuum anchored by defensive/withdrawn behaviors on one pole, and disruptive/intrusive behaviors at the other pole. In the middle of the continuum are target behaviors. Defensive/withdrawn behaviors include those behaviors that indicate social and emotional deficits (i.e., withdrawn, depressed, timid, shy, fearful, covert observed behaviors).

Rocking and Rolling of Adolescent Stressed Mind with Music Therapy

Tanu Jagdev (The India Krishna Society)
The study aims to evaluate the efficacy of music therapy program for the adolescents in lowering students down their academic stress. It was hypothesized that post intervention academic scores would be less as compared to pre intervention scores. A Pre-Post design was adopted. Academic stress Scale by Abha Rani Bisht (1987) was used. Using this scale, fifty adolescents with high academic stress were identified. Music Therapy was given for a period of fifteen days to participants. After intervention, the same scale was re-administered. T-test was applied to see the effect of music efficacy. Post intervention procrastination academic stress scores found to be less as compared to the pre intervention scores.

Correlation of Acoustic Analysis of Pitch/Rhythm with Perceptual Impression Evaluations and Articulation Improvements after Vocal Training for Dysarthria Patients

Maki Kato, Seiichi Nakagawa & Kasumasa Yamamoto (Toyohashi University of Technology)
This study was achieved through singing instruction exercises to improve vocal articulation for dysarthria patients. During the fundamental research, we found a strong correlation between acoustic analytical measurement (objective evaluation) and perceptual impression evaluation (subjective evaluation)1). However, in this previous research, the results were based on a small quantity of data. Thus, in this study we increased the number of patients and their tests.

Analysis of Poster and Publication Trends in the American Music Therapy Association

Beth Kimura, Michael Silverman (University of Minnesota) & Eric Waldon (Kaiser Permanente)
The purposes of this study were to: (a) analyze trends in poster session presentations at the national conference; (b) identify factors related to the number of posters presented; and (c) explore the rate of publication in journals both inside and outside of the American Music Therapy Association (AMTA). Results indicated that most research posters at the AMTA national conference were presented by authors in the Southeastern and Midwestern regions. Additionally, the number of graduate schools in the region was the largest predictor of poster presentation, accounting for approximately 14% of the unique variance. Finally, a systematic literature search indicated that the majority of posters were not published. However, of the posters that had been published, most posters were published in the Journal of Music Therapy. Limitations of the analysis and suggestions for future research are provided.

Music Therapy for School-Aged Individuals with Varying Exceptionalities: A Content Analysis (1975 - 2009)

Sarah Klein (Abilitations Children's Therapy & Wellness Center)
The purpose of this study was to analyze the contents of experimental research from 1975 – 2009 in the field of music therapy that involved school-aged children with varying exceptionalities. Sixty-four published and unpublished studies met criteria for inclusion and were catalogued and coded for the following characteristics: type of source, total number of participants, population, age range, research design, duration of study, presentation of music, non-musical objective, method of evaluation, intervention strategies used, and effectiveness. A wide variety of strategies were used, including background music, mood-inducing music, music as a mnemonic device or instructional tool, musical antecedents, and music used as a contingency or to facilitate structure. Musical activities included singing, playing instruments, moving to music, listening to music, songwriting, using sign language with music, and musical games. Results of this content analysis support the use of music therapy in schools to address the educational objectives of children and youth with special needs.

College Students' Music Listening Preferences When Studying Mathematics

Andrew Knight (University of North Dakota)
The purpose of this study was to ascertain college students’ perceptions of the efficacy of music listening on studying for math courses. Three hundred and thirty-nine college students (N=339) participated by completing the survey instrument, created by the researchers, called the Assessment of Math and Music Preferences of Students (AMMPS). Significant differences were found in several comparison areas from the demographics portion of the questionnaire. Also notable was a high reliability for several constructs, including arousal, physical distance and mental distance to distraction. Forty percent of students indicated they often listen to music of their choice while they study, and forty percent also reported listening to music while they study or had studied math, specifically.

Music Therapy Students; Perception on Undergraduate Research Class

Soo-Jin Kwoun (Maryville University at St. Louis)
The study was conducted to investigate undergraduate music therapy students’ perception on class components that are designed to meet class objectives of the research class. Music therapy is one of the fields where therapists with a baccalaureate degree are engaged in clinical practice. As evidence-based practice is gaining more recognition in the field, music therapists’ ability to understand, analyze and apply published research to their practice becomes more important (Wheeler, 2005). Therefore, the research class offered to undergraduate music therapy students plays a very important role in preparing students to become active research consumers who read, understand, critique and then utilize research findings to solve various clinical issues. Despite its importance, however, there has been no study conducted on music therapy research methodology classes offered to undergraduate music therapy students. Exploring students’ perception of their experiences in research courses will provide valuable information to music therapy educators regarding how to design and instruct the class.

The Effect of Music Therapy on Stress, Pain, Nausea, Sense of Well-Being, and Treatment Perceptions on Patients and Caregivers on a Medical Oncology-Hematology Unit: Preliminary Analyses

Erin Lane, Michael Silverman & Jenny Ulmer (University of Minnesota)
The American Cancer Society (2009) estimates that almost 1.5 million new cancer cases were diagnosed during 2009 in the United States, resulting in over half a million cancer-related deaths that year. Music therapy may help address psychosocial concerns of hospitalized cancer patients and contribute to management of unpleasant symptoms. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a single music therapy session on stress, pain, nausea, sense of well-being, and treatment perceptions on patients and caregivers on a medical oncology-hematology unit. Participants (N = 27) were randomly assigned to a wait-list control or experimental group. Those assigned to the control group completed a short questionnaire to assess symptoms before receiving live, patient preferred music performed by the researcher on guitar and voice. Participants assigned to the experimental group completed the questionnaire after receiving music therapy. The only variable that reached statistical significant was perception of therapeutic effectiveness of music therapy (p < .001), with the experimental group having a higher rating. Although no other statistically significant differences were found between the experimental and control groups, the experimental group tended to have more positive ratings for each variable. Limitations of the study, implications for clinical practice, and suggestions for future research are provided.

The Effect of Music Therapy on Inpatient Consumers with Severe Mental Illnesses as Measured by Durational Attendance: A Preliminary Analysis

Jennifer Leonard & Michael Silverman (University of Minnesota)
Due to their high degree of symptomology, people with severe mental illnesses (SMI) can be difficult to study in a systematic manner. Additionally, previous research has found no difference between the effects of active music therapy and passive music listening. Therefore, the primary purpose of this study was to compare durational attendance spent in active music therapy sessions with durational attendance spent in passive music listening sessions. The secondary purpose of this study was to compare treatment perceptions concerning active music therapy and passive music listening on people with SMI. In an attempt to control the independent variables, the researchers offered interventions for five consecutive days on the same unit during two separate weeks. Results indicated that participants spent considerably more time in active music therapy sessions than in passive music listening sessions. Participants in the active music therapy condition also had higher perceptions of helpfulness and how much they learned concerning managing their mental illness than participants in the passive music listening condition. The higher durational attendance during the active music therapy condition may have implications for funding and billing. Limitations of the study and suggestions for future research are provided.

The Effects of Text Presentation (Sung/Chanted/Spoken) on Reading Comprehension of Children with Developmental Disabilities

Lorissa McGuire (University of Kansas)
The purpose of this project was to investigate the effects of different text presentation (sung/chanted/spoken) on reading comprehension of students with disabilities. Children’s literature was used as the medium to compare comprehension abilities when the book text was presented as a melodic song, rhythmic chant, and spoken text. This study used three children’s books that all contain the same literary components of rhythm, rhyme, and repetition. All three books have the same illustrator and author(s) and follow the same literary structure of a four-line rhyming stanza per two pages. Participants (N=14) were students with developmental disabilities in grades four through twelve enrolled in public education in the Midwest region of the United States. All students demonstrated a significant delay in the area of reading comprehension and recall of story events as reflected on an Individualized Education Plan (IEP). Each participant took part in three experimental trials. Participant’s literacy skill levels varied greatly, therefore each subject served as his/her own control. During each trial, the participant was asked text-based comprehension questions throughout the book. At the conclusion of each trial, participants were asked to recall information form the story. The recall portion consisted of indentifying the story setting, recalling characters, sequencing events, and matching character descriptions. All trials were video-taped for the purpose of data collection. Individual scores and average scores per trial were compared. This study aims to provide the initial framework for using music to enhance comprehension of literature for students with developmental disabilities.

The use of Salivary Immunoglobulin A (SIgA) Following Music Therapy as an Indicator of the Human Immune System

Peter Meyer & Elizabeth Norel (University of Minnesota)
Salivary immunoglobulin A (SIgA) is an indicator of immune functioning that is readily accessible and has been used to test the hypothesis that music affects human immune system functioning. Researchers including Eyerly, 2006; Kreutz et al., 2004; Kuhn, 2002; Lane, 1991; and Suzuki et al., 2007 have measured SIgA in response to music and have found significant results. Unpublished research conducted by the author of the present study modeled the techniques and methods used by the researchers mentioned above. A significant difference between the amount of change in SIgA present in a person’s saliva after a music therapy session and the amount of change in SIgA present in a person’s saliva after a control session was not found. Professors from the Augsburg College Biology department proposed that it may be possible that new SIgA cannot be formed instantly after a music session. In addition, a study conducted by Mutarelli et al., 2008 displayed the fastest possible response of a cell by adding a steroid (estrogen). The study showed that when estrogen was actively introduced, it took at least an hour for the first response of SIgA cell production to appear. Conversely, the exposure to music therapy is not active production; rather it relies on the music having a calming effect and thereby reducing cortisol to increase SIgA. These results, as well as my study, would seem to indicate that music would not be able to increase SIgA in the body within an hour. If this hypothesis is true, previous researchers studying the effects of music on the human immune system, as indicated by SIgA, may have used inaccurate research methods in their research.

The Impact of Breathing and Music Interventions on Stress Levels of Patients and
Visitors in a Psychiatric Emergency Room

Robert Miller & Joanne Spency (University of Pittsburgh Medical Center)
The Diagnostic Evaluation Center (DEC) is a psychiatric evaluation center providing evaluations 24 hours per day, seven days per week, 365 days per year. The DEC provides acute comprehensive emergency psychiatric evaluations and has the capability of making referrals to one of our acute care inpatient beds, outpatient services including general outpatient, ambulatory detoxification, partial programming, or intensive outpatient programming. Inpatient admissions and referrals to outpatient services are also coordinated within the hospital system, the community and throughout the region. The DEC also works in collaboration with the telephone crisis services and the form of the Call Center and immediate crisis intervention services in the form of a Mobile Crisis Team. The hypothesis is that introducing therapeutic breathing exercises and calming music in the waiting room of the DEC will help reduce stress levels of clients and visitors. A yoga therapist conducted a simple breathing exercise, focusing on the three-part yogic breath (sometimes known as abdominal breathing or diaphragmatic breathing) for half an hour one day per week. Music therapists on staff in the hospital compiled a CD of calming music selections to be played on a portable CD player for half an hour one day per week. The time of 3:00pm was chosen to implement the interventions, coinciding with one of the busier parts of the day and with the staff change of shift.

The Effect of a Music Exercise and Healthy Eating Habits Program on Children’s Weight Loss

Satoko Mori-Inoue (The Florida State University)

Low amounts of physical activity paired with frequent consumption of fatty foods have been linked with childhood obesity. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a music-exercise and educational program on normal-weight, overweight and obese elementary school aged children’s anthropometries, nutritional knowledge and attitudes about exercise. A six-week music-based curriculum designed to increase children’s physical activity and provide nutrition education was created for this study. Twenty-nine 3rd and 4th grade students participated. An ABA design was incorporated and descriptive analysis was utilized to examine the data. The outcome variables included: (a) BMI-for-age and waist circumference, (b) behavioral observations of off-task behavior, (c) participants’ attitudes about school and the music intervention, and (d) participants’ eating habits and nutritional knowledge.
Results indicated a decrease of 2.1 percentile for overall mean BMI-for-age, with a 0.3 percentile decrease in obese children, a 1.5 percentile decrease in overweight children and a 4.5 percentile decrease in normal-weight children from baseline to the music intervention. Mean waist circumference showed a slight decrease for normal and overweight children.
Participants’ attitudes about school worsened by 0.2 points, but the music intervention was viewed more favorably. The participants’ healthy eating habits and food knowledge showed a mean improvement of 0.2 and of 0.8 points respectively. Mean off-task behavior decreased by 2.4% at the end of music intervention. Results suggest that the music intervention positively impacted weight/BMI during the 6-week intervention. Additionally, the program appeared to improve behavior and attitudes toward exercise and healthy food choices.

The Effects of Songwriting on Happiness and Self-Esteem in Adults with Cerebral Palsy

Ashley Newbrough & Michael J. Silverman (University of Minnesota)
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of songwriting on the happiness and self-esteem of adults with cerebral palsy. Participants were four adult males with a primary diagnosis of cerebral palsy, ranging in age from early 40s to late 60s. All four participants resided together in a group home. The four participants attended 12 songwriting sessions over an 8-week period. Some songs were written by individuals, while other songs were the result of group effort. Participants completed psychometric questionnaires measuring happiness and self-esteem pre- and post- intervention. Results were not significant (p > .05). However, the scores of one participant increased from pre- to posttest and there was a high level of emotional content in the song this participant composed. The principle investigator also interviewed the participants at the conclusion of the study. Free-response comments from the interview were positive and supported the songwriting intervention. Limitations of this study and suggestions for future research are provided. Future research is warranted to provide better services to adults with cerebral palsy.

Using Music to Promote Positive Mood

Brett Northrup (University of Louisville)
This study examined whether or not music affects mood, in an attempt to contribute to finding a method for promoting positive mood. Twenty four music students from a large metropolitan university were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. Each was given a pre- and post-questionnaire rating his or her current mood. The results were analyzed using a 2 x 2 mixed analysis of variance and indicated that there was a significant change in positive mood after hearing the music. The results of this study may help music therapy clinicians to use music to promote positive mood.

Assessment of Integrative Learning in Designated Music Therapy Courses

Lee Anna Rasar, Katie Rydlund, A .J. Schuh , Amber Tappe & Iansa Zaldarriaga (University of Wisconsin)
Integrated Learning is defined in this project as the application of information from one context into a different context which occurs when a person is able to see connections of value between the pieces of information. The thinking process which enables one to see the connections results from encoding information with multiple perspectives with anticipation that the information may be used in the future for a variety of applications. Integrated learning also includes the process of discernment following analysis and synthesis to determine what is therapeutic and what could or did pose danger. Integrated learning is based on an awareness of the depth and breadth of perspective held by each person involved in the learning process (self, peers, staff, supervisors, clients).
This project will examine whether students integrate content from two courses when they are outside class, and if so, how and where the content is used. It will also examine the effectiveness and sustainability of the use of the content. Any perspectives changes that resulted from the use of this knowledge, including any changes related to diversity awareness and appreciation, will be noted. The changes and the process elicited these changes will also be examined. Data from a survey will be collated, coded by themes, and examined with respect to integrative learning content by using coding scheme and unitizing methodology. Data analysis will be complete by the time of the conference and will include visual representation of the data through graphs.
Multiple layers of integration will be examined in this project. Layers internal to music include the properties of music and the musical elements as well as the performer’s musical ability and performance. In integrated learning, choices of music are intentional with respect to the impact of these aspects of the music on desired outcomes. Layers of integration required for musical presentation include: memory for lyrics, melody, harmonic structure and rhythm; ability to perform with musical flow; ability to play with passion and emotional communication/motivation; ability to sing while simultaneously performing musically; ability to LEAD while singing and simultaneously performing; ability to pay attention to responses of clients while simultaneously presenting performance; ability to respond to clients while simultaneously performing; and ability to make therapeutic decisions while observing and responding to clients while simultaneously presenting musical performance. Layers of integration required for therapeutic intervention include: ability to identify major goals in therapy; ability to structure music activities to target therapeutic goals; and skill in evaluation of therapeutic choices with respect to effectiveness in elicitation of therapeutic responses.
Layers of integration required to design, present, and evaluate therapeutic activities include awareness of background, relationships, beliefs, and values. Layers of integration required to place therapeutic work into context include awareness of the role of music in society, culture, politics, and the environment.

Assessment of Ability of Nursing Home Residents with Dementia to Imitate and Spontaneously Perform Rhythmic Patterns with Accents and Complex Rhythmic Structure

Lee Anna Rasar, Kaite Rydlund, Iansa Zaldarriaga (University of Wisconsin)
Assessment of Ability of Nursing Home Residents with Dementia to Imitate and Spontaneously Perform Rhythmic Patterns with Accents and Complex Rhythmic Structure Assessment of perception patterns of residents on a dementia unit at a nursing home before, during, and after training periods for rhythm pattern performance was examined. Specifically, responses to songs with accompaniments that have rhythmic accents and complex rhythmic structure were noted and compared when residents were allowed to independently perform rhythmic expressions prior to a training period with their responses when specific rhythm patterns were modeled by music therapy students with the intention that residents follow their modeling. The comparison of pre-training responses was made with responses exhibited both during and after the training period. The need for this project became evident during a pilot study in which residents on this dementia unit performed complex rhythms, even performing syncopations with accents on odd numbered beats in subdivisions as high as sixteen. They were also able to perform stylistically correct rhythmic patterns in music from other cultures. The current project served as a follow up to the pilot study to more closely examine the musical contour and harmonies that were successful in eliciting specific rhythmic performances and to provide documentation related to how the residents perceive and respond to specific rhythmic patterns within the context of specific songs.
Multiple styles and meters were presented in different songs to provide an accurate picture of what best helps patients with dementia process these rhythms. The methodology of the study was built upon anecdotal observations and another pilot study conducted by Robert Groene entitled “The Effect of Presentation and Accompaniment Styles on Attentional and Responsive Behaviors of Participants with Dementia Diagnoses.” Patients were counted as following the rhythm pattern when they presented a rhythm pattern by using a tambourine, tapping their feet, or performing any other physical motions that would appear to be rhythmic. Any rhythm patterns which the residents performed were recorded along with any tambourine shaking that was noted throughout the song. The same audio recording to present the series of songs was used throughout the study, and it is notable that the songs on the recording were familiar to them and were performed by a music therapist who frequently performed for them, so the performance style was familiar and had previously been effective in the elicitation of spontaneous rhythmic performance. Data was collected by two independent observers. Discussion of results and specific data displayed in graphs and tables are presented. It is notable that the rhythm groups were scheduled at 4 p.m., a time of day that is typically a challenging time for these residents. One important result of this project is that the staff at this nursing home realized that the residents could meaningfully engage in rhythms at this time of day and decided to schedule in rhythmic programming at that time of day.

The Effect of Music Therapy on Pain, Anxiety, Nausea, Fatigue and Relaxation of Hospitalized Patients Recovering From a Bone Marrow Transplant and Their Caregivers

Sara Rosenow & Michael J. Silverman (University of Minnesota)
The use of music in the medical setting has been effective involving a variety of clinical populations. Specifically, music therapy interventions have been shown to be more effective than recorded music in meta-analyses concerning the use of music in medical settings. Over the past 20 years there has been a major increase in the number of bone marrow transplantations as a treatment for life-threatening medical conditions. These patients typically have major risks associated with their health: serious complications such as infection, anemia or internal bleeding are common when their bone marrow is low. The result often necessitates a blood transfusion to treat these complications while waiting for the new cells to begin their growth. Additionally, short-term side effects of bone marrow transplant may include nausea, vomiting, fatigue, loss of appetite, hair loss, and skin reactions. As treatment progresses, patients may face a number of challenges and concerns, including but not limited to: loss of independence, difficulty completing daily activities; sense of self-worth; body image; financial stability; and their own mortality. Researchers have found that post-operation patients who had higher distress levels also tended to have greater anxiety, depression, and a wide range of physical, emotional and family problems. These findings suggest there is a need to address both physiological and psychological stressors pre-discharge. In a previous research study concerning the benefits of music therapy for bone marrow transplant patients, the investigator found increased relaxation and endurance levels. However, generalization is limited as the study utilized a small samples size (N = 6). Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effect of music therapy on anxiety, nausea, fatigue, and pain, and relaxation for hospitalized patients recovering from bone marrow transplants.

Participatory Action Research: One Method of Culture-Centered Music Therapy

Melody Schwantes (Joie de Vivre Music Therapy Studio)
Depression, anxiety, and social isolation, often self-medicated with alcohol, have been found to be mental health issues facing Mexican migrant farm workers who travel each year through the guest worker program to work in agriculture in the United States. Participatory action research (PAR) where participants work with the researchers to develop the study protocol, has been an effective culture-centered method of working with this population to improve other health concerns. In the summer of 2009, 57 male, Mexican migrant farm workers participated in a pilot intervention study that included three conditions: music therapy, English as a second language classes (ESL), or a comparison group that received a brief stress-education program.
Integrated Learning is defined in this project as the application of information from one context into a different context which occurs when a person is able to see connections of value between the pieces of information. The thinking process which enables one to see the connections results from encoding information with multiple perspectives with anticipation that the information may be used in the future for a variety of applications. Integrated learning also includes the process of discernment following analysis and synthesis to determine what is therapeutic and what could or did pose danger. Integrated learning is based on an awareness of the depth and breadth of perspective held by each person involved in the learning process (self, peers, staff, supervisors, clients).
This project will examine whether students integrate content from two courses when they are outside class, and if so, how and where the content is used. It will also examine the effectiveness and sustainability of the use of the content. Any perspectives changes that resulted from the use of this knowledge, including any changes related to diversity awareness and appreciation, will be noted. The changes and the process elicited these changes will also be examined. Data from a survey will be collated, coded by themes, and examined with respect to integrative learning content by using coding scheme and unitizing methodology. Data analysis will be complete by the time of the conference and will include visual representation of the data through graphs.
Multiple layers of integration will be examined in this project. Layers internal to music include the properties of music and the musical elements as well as the performer’s musical ability and performance. In integrated learning, choices of music are intentional with respect to the impact of these aspects of the music on desired outcomes. Layers of integration required for musical presentation include: memory for lyrics, melody, harmonic structure and rhythm; ability to perform with musical flow; ability to play with passion and emotional communication/motivation; ability to sing while simultaneously performing musically; ability to LEAD while singing and simultaneously performing; ability to pay attention to responses of clients while simultaneously presenting performance; ability to respond to clients while simultaneously performing; and ability to make therapeutic decisions while observing and responding to clients while simultaneously presenting musical performance. Layers of integration required for therapeutic intervention include: ability to identify major goals in therapy; ability to structure music activities to target therapeutic goals; and skill in evaluation of therapeutic choices with respect to effectiveness in elicitation of therapeutic responses.
Layers of integration required to design, present, and evaluate therapeutic activities include awareness of background, relationships, beliefs, and values. Layers of integration required to place therapeutic work into context include awareness of the role of music in society, culture, politics, and the environment.

The Effect of Pitch, Rhythm, and Harmony on Short- and Long-Term Sequential Visual Memory in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

Edward Schwartzberg & Michael Silverman (University of Minnesota)
Researchers have suggested that children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are often visual learners. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of rhythmic, pitch and harmonic patterns on the immediate and long term memory recall of visual information in children with ASD. The principle investigator collected the data during three separate one-week summer camps for children with ASD. Participants (N = 42) received each of the seven-item visual stimuli paired with a music condition (speech, rhythm, pitch, or harmony) on consecutive days of camp, beginning on day two and ending on day five. Participants observed seven visual pictures of known objects in a pre-determined, randomized sequential order. Each order was paired with one of the music conditions. Results were statistically significant for term, with greater recall during the short-term memory recall phase. Further analyses of the data indicated that the short-term memory recall associated with the rhythmic and pitch patterns was more accurate than with the other conditions, although results for condition were not significant. Short- and long-term recall was best in the harmony condition. Across all conditions, participants had better recall during sequential positions of primacy and recency. These findings seem to suggest that when visual information is delivered, it should be coupled with either a rhythmic or melodic progression to facilitate recall in children with ASD. Implications for use in therapeutic and educational settings are discussed and suggestions are provided for future research.

The Effects of Music and Multimodal Stimulation on Premature Infants’ Responses in Neonatal Intensive Care

Jayne Standley & Darcy Walworth (The Florida State University)
The purpose of the current study was to replicate a previous study, “The Effect of Music and Multimodal Stimulation on Responses of Premature Infants in Neonatal Intensive Care” (Standley, 1998) with a larger subject enrollment and with the updated protocol of live guitar added to the multimodal music stimulation protocol to identify the effects of multimodal stimulation compared with standard nursing care for NICU patients. Independent variables included multimodal stimulation using vocal auditory stimulation, multimodal stimulation using vocal and guitar auditory stimulation, number of days receiving multimodal stimulation, severity of diagnoses, and infant birth weight. The dependent variables included length of hospital stay, weight gain per day, and number of days to full feeds and were collected from the patients’ charts.

The Effects of Participation in Music Therapy on Patients with Dementia and Preference for Instrumental and Vocal applications

Rebekah Stewart (University of Missouri-Kansas City)
The purpose of this study was to measure music therapy participation in a group of patients (N = 24) with dementia ranging in age from 70-90, over a period of 4 weeks. Active participation in a singing application and an instrument playing application was measured using a time-sampling method of 10-second observe and 5-second record. Results showed a significant difference (p < .01) in the level of participation between the singing and playing in favor of the instrument playing, possibly due to the heightened level of multi-sensory stimulation when instruments were introduced.

The Effects of Participation in a Parkinson’s Choir on the Speech of Individuals with Parkinson’s Disease: A Pilot Study

Olivia Swedburg (The Florida State University)
Recently, there has been a growth in the number of choirs designed specifically for individuals with Parkinson’s Disease. As of 2009, such “Parkinson’s Choirs” could be found in Arizona, California, Florida, Toronto, and London (Hesley, 2009). The choir included in this study is led by a board-certified music therapist and utilizes the MTVP within a group setting, yet the effectiveness of this technique with a group has not been documented. In light of the evidence suggesting that speech therapy techniques such as the LSVT can effectively be practiced in group settings with individuals with PD, future research on the effects of group singing in Parkinson’s Choirs on speech intelligibility of people with PD is warranted. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of participation in a Parkinson’s Choir on the intensity and fundamental frequency of the speech of individuals with PD, and to determine whether caregivers of individuals with PD notice an increase in the loudness and intelligibility of speech of the individuals with PD after participation in the choir. Research questions included:
1. Will there be a difference in the average intensity of speech of individuals with PD in a post-test after 60 minutes of participation in a Parkinson’s Choir, when compared to a pre-test of average intensity of speech?
2. Will there be a difference in the average fundamental frequency of speech of individuals with PD in a post-test after 60 minutes of participation in a Parkinson’s Choir, when compared to a pre-test of average fundamental frequency of speech?
3. Will there be a difference in the average fundamental frequency variability of speech of individuals with PD in a post-test after 60 minutes of participation in a Parkinson’s Choir, when compared to a pre-test of average fundamental frequency variability of speech?
4. Will there be a difference in the loudness of speech of individuals with PD, as assessed by the caregivers of the individuals with PD, in a post-test after 60 minutes of participation in a Parkinson’s Choir, when compared to a pre-test?
5. Will there be a difference in the intelligibility of speech of individuals with PD, as assessed by the caregivers of the individuals with PD, in a post-test after 60 minutes of participation in a Parkinson’s Choir, when compared to a pre-test?

Evaluating a Pilot Improvisational Drumming Curriculum: Implications Incorporating Drumming Competencies in Music Therapy

Daniel Tague (The Florida State University)
More attention has recently been given to drum circles and using percussion for activities in therapy. Specific requirements in percussion skills have been added to the professional competencies for music therapists. In order to better prepare music therapy students to use percussion interventions in therapy, the researcher designed and implemented a drumming in music therapy course. This pilot project was approved for the spring 2010 semester. The purpose of this class was to teach basic drum technique on a variety of world percussion instruments and subsequently have the students use their drum skills to implement specially designed drumming activities in simulated therapy settings.

Music Educators' Perceptions of Supports Available for Inclusion of Students with Special Needs: A Pilot Study

Kimberly Van Weelden (The Florida State University) & Jennifer Whipple (Charleston Southern University)
Related to the advancements in academic training, music education research has established the efficacy of field experiences in which music education majors, also referred to as pre-service teachers work with students with special needs. These studies have indicated that such academic training increases pre-service teachers’ perceptions of the ability of students with special needs to learn music concepts, improves the pre-service teachers’ perceptions of their ability to effectively teach students with special needs (VanWeelden & Whipple, 2007a, 2005b), improves the ability of pre-service teachers to accurately assess music concept acquisition of students with special needs (VanWeelden & Whipple, 2007b, 2005a), and provides pre-service teachers with the tools to successfully create music curriculum adaptations and modifications for students with special needs (VanWeelden & Whipple, 2007a, 2005b). Still, the extent of such field experiences in academic programs nationwide is unknown, as is the availability of similar professional training for more established teachers already in service. Consequently, we do not know the effects of the broader educational or the aforementioned policy changes on experiences of in-service music educators and their students. Therefore, the primary purpose of the research project is to ascertain whether the status has changed from previous research by determining the current perceptions of music educators throughout the United States regarding effectiveness of inclusion and mainstreaming in music education in public schools. Specific research questions follow:
1) Are there differences in perceptions of success in working with students with special needs among music educators who work predominantly within different specialty areas (i.e., general music, choral, instrumental)?
2) Are there differences in perceptions among music educators with varied experience in working with students with special needs in music?
3) Do music educators perceive students with specific types of special needs as more difficult than others to integrate into their classrooms?
4) How frequently do music educators address musical versus nonmusical objectives as their primary teaching focus?
5) How prepared do music educators feel to adapt for, modify for, and assess achievement of students with special needs in the music classroom?
This study was conducted simultaneously with another that specifically examines music educator perceptions of their educational preparation and availability of instructional support for teaching students with special needs.

Medical Music Therapy Survey: How Does Your Department Grow?

Kerry Willis (Norton Audubon Hospital)
An electronic survey was conducted to determine staffing trends and the role of the music therapist within the medical setting. 32 out of 142 surveys were returned for a return rate of 23%. The results show that the majority of medical music therapists (46.9%) work in General Hospitals. On average 2 music therapists are employed by each facility but only 36 hours of music therapy are provided at each facility, indicating that most music therapists are employed part-time by the medical facilities. The majority of medical music therapy programs also provide clinical training for music therapy students through practicum and / or internships. Additional research needs to be conducted to get a more complete picture of how medical music therapy programs function.

The Effect of a Single-Session Music Therapy Group Intervention for Grief Resolution on the Disenfranchised Grief of Hospice Workers

Natalie Wlodarczyk (Drury University)
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a single-session music therapy group intervention on feelings of disenfranchised grief as experienced by hospice workers. A secondary purpose was to determine if a group of this type could have a significant positive effect on hospice workers’ risk for compassion fatigue and their perception of their work environment one month after participation in the group. Participants in this study (N = 68) were hospice employees who experienced direct patient contact as part of their job. This study used a pretest-posttest randomized control group design with a second posttest administered 30 day after initial data collection.